North Dakota

TITLE 39 MOTOR VEHICLES

CHAPTER 39-01 DEFINITIONS AND GENERAL PROVISIONS

39-01-01. Definitions.

In this title, unless the context or subject matter otherwise requires:

  1. “Appropriate licensed addiction treatment program” means an addiction treatmentprogram conducted by an addiction facility licensed by the department of human services or conducted by a licensed individual specifically trained in addiction treatment.
  2. “Authorized emergency vehicles”:

a.

“Class A” authorized emergency vehicles means:

  1. (1)  Vehicles of a governmentally owned fire department.
  2. (2)  Vehicles when operated by or under the control of a police officer havingauthority to enforce the provisions of this title or by a salaried employee of a municipal police department within the municipality or by a sheriff or deputy sheriff not including special deputy sheriffs, or by the director of the department of corrections and rehabilitation and the director’s authorized agents who have successfully completed training in the operation of class A authorized emergency vehicles.
  3. (3)  Vehicles clearly identifiable as property of the department of corrections and rehabilitation when operated or under the control of the director of the department of corrections and rehabilitation.
  4. (4)  Ambulances.
  5. (5)  Vehicles operated by or under the control of the director, district deputydirector, or a district deputy game warden of the game and fish department.
  6. (6)  Vehicles owned or leased by the United States and used for lawenforcement purposes.
  7. (7)  Vehicles designated for the use of the adjutant general or assistant adjutantgeneral in cases of emergency.
  8. (8)  Vehicles operated by or under the control of the director of the parks andrecreation department.
  9. (9)  Vehicles operated by or under the control of a licensed railroad police officerand used for law enforcement purposes.
  10. (10)  Vehicles operated by or under the control of the state forester.
  11. (11)  Vehicles operated by or under the control of the bureau of criminal

investigation and used for law enforcement purposes.
b. “Class B” authorized emergency vehicles means wreckers and such other

emergency vehicles as are authorized by the local authorities. c. “Class C” authorized emergency vehicles means:

  1. (1)  Vehicles authorized by the state division of homeland security or local division of emergency management organizations.
  2. (2)  Vehicles used by volunteer firefighters while performing their assigned disaster and emergency responsibilities.
  3. (3)  Vehicles, other than ambulances, used by emergency medical services personnel.
  1. “Bicycle” means every device propelled solely by human power upon which any person may ride, having two tandem wheels either of which is more than twenty inches [50.8 centimeters] in diameter.
  2. “Bus” means every motor vehicle designed for carrying more than ten passengers and used for the transportation of persons, and every motor vehicle, other than a taxicab, designed and used for the transportation of persons for compensation. Provided, every motor vehicle designed for carrying not more than fifteen persons and used for a ridesharing arrangement, as defined in section 8-02-07, is not a “bus”.

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  1. “Business district” means the territory contiguous to a highway when fifty percent or more of the frontage thereon for a distance of three hundred feet [91.44 meters] or more is occupied by buildings in use for business.
  2. “Camping trailer” means a vehicular portable unit mounted on wheels and constructed with collapsible partial side walls that fold for towing by another vehicle and unfold at the campsite to provide temporary living quarters for recreational, camping, or travel use.
  3. “Child restraint system” means a specifically designed device, built-in seating system, or belt-positioning booster that meets the federal motor vehicle safety standards and is permanently affixed to a motor vehicle, is affixed to the vehicle by a safety belt or universal attachment system, or is combined with a federally compliant safety belt system.
  4. “Commercial freighting” means the carriage of things other than passengers, for hire, except that such term does not include:
    1. The carriage of things other than passengers within the limits of the same city;
    2. Carriage by local dray lines of baggage or goods to or from a railroad station fromor to places in such city or in the immediate vicinity thereof, in this state, and not to exceed two miles [3.22 kilometers] from the corporate or recognized limits of said city; or
    3. Hauling done by farmers for their neighbors in transporting agricultural products to or from market.
  5. “Commercial passenger transportation” means the carriage of passengers for hire, except that the term does not include:
    1. The carriage of passengers within the limits of a city.
    2. The carriage by local buslines of passengers to or from a railroad station from orto places within any city or within two miles [3.22 kilometers] of the limits of thecity.
    3. The carriage of passengers under a ridesharing arrangement, as defined insection 8-02-07.
  6. “Commissioner” means the director of the department of transportation of this state,acting directly or through authorized agents as provided by section 24-02-01.3.
  7. “Controlled-access highway” means every highway, street, or roadway in respect to which owners or occupants of abutting lands and other persons have no legal right of access to or from the same except at such points only and in such manner as may be determined by the public authority having jurisdiction over such highway, street, orroadway.
  8. “Crosswalk” means that part of a roadway at an intersection included within theconnections of the lateral lines of the sidewalks on opposite sides of the highway measured from the curbs, or, in the absence of curbs, from the edges of the traversable roadway; or any portion of a roadway at an intersection or elsewhere distinctly indicated for pedestrian crossing by lines or other markings on the surface.
  9. “Dealer” means every person, partnership, corporation, or limited liability company engaged in the business of buying, selling, or exchanging motor vehicles, or who advertises, or holds out to the public as engaged in the buying, selling, or exchanging of motor vehicles, or who engages in the buying of motor vehicles for resale. Any person, partnership, corporation, limited liability company, or association doing business in several cities or in several locations within a city must be considered a separate dealer in each such location.
  10. “Department” means the department of transportation of this state as provided by section 24-02-01.1.
  11. “Director” means the director of the department of transportation of this state as provided by section 24-02-01.3.
  12. “Driver” means every person who drives or is in actual physical control of a vehicle.
  13. “Electronic communication device” means an electronic device, including a wireless telephone, personal digital assistant, a portable or mobile computer or other device, and video display equipment. The term does not include a global positioning system or

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navigation system or a device that is physically or electronically integrated into the

motor vehicle.

  1. “Essential parts” means all integral and body parts of a vehicle of a type required to beregistered hereunder, the removal, alteration, or substitution of which would tend to conceal the identity of the vehicle or substantially alter its appearance, model, type, or mode of operation and includes all integral parts and body parts, the removal, alteration, or substitution of which will tend to conceal the identity or substantially alter the appearance of the vehicle.
  2. “Explosives” means any chemical compound or mechanical mixture that is commonly used or intended for the purpose of producing an explosion and which contains any oxidizing and combustive units or other ingredients in such proportions, quantities, or packing that an ignition by fire, by friction, by concussion, by percussion, or by detonator of any part of the compound or mixture may cause such a sudden generation of highly heated gases that the resultant gaseous pressures are capable of producing destructive effects on contiguous objects or by destroying life or limb.
  3. “Farm tractor” includes every motor vehicle designed and used primarily as a farm implement for drawing plows, moving machines, and other implements of husbandry.
  4. “Farm trailer” includes those trailers and semitrailers towed by a bona fide resident farmer hauling the farmer’s own agricultural, horticultural, dairy, and other farm products if the gross weight, not including the towing vehicle, does not exceed twenty-four thousand pounds [10886.22 kilograms].
  5. “Fifth-wheel travel trailer” means a vehicular unit mounted on wheels, designed to provide temporary living quarters for recreational, camping, or travel use, of such size or weight as not to require a special highway movement permit and designed to be towed by a motorized vehicle that contains a towing mechanism that is mounted above or forward of the tow vehicle’s rear axle.
  6. “Flammable liquid” means any liquid which has a flash point of seventy degrees Fahrenheit [21.11 degrees Celsius], or less, as determined by a tagliabue or equivalent closed-cup test device.
  7. “Foreign vehicle” means every motor vehicle which is brought into this state other than in the ordinary course of business by or through a manufacturer or dealer and which has not been registered in this state.
  8. “Gross weight” means the weight of a vehicle without load plus the weight of any load thereon.
  9. “Guest” means and includes a person who accepts a ride in any vehicle without giving compensation therefor.
  10. “Highway” means the entire width between the boundary lines of every way publicly maintained when any part thereof is open to the use of the public for purposes of vehicular travel and of every way privately maintained within a mobile home park, trailer park, or campground containing five or more lots for occupancy by mobile homes, travel trailers, or tents when any part thereof is open for purposes of vehicular travel.
  11. “House car” or “motor home” means a motor vehicle which has been reconstructed or manufactured primarily for private use as a temporary or recreational dwelling and having at least four of the following permanently installed systems:
    1. Cooking facilities.
    2. Icebox or mechanical refrigerator.
    3. Potable water supply including plumbing and a sink with faucet eitherself-contained or with connections for an external source, or both.
    4. Self-contained toilet or a toilet connected to a plumbing system with connectionfor external water disposal, or both.
    5. Heating or air-conditioning system, or both, separate from the vehicle engine orthe vehicle engine electrical system.
    6. A 110-115 volt alternating current electrical system separate from the vehicleengine electrical system either with its own power supply or with a connection for an external source, or both, or a liquefied petroleum system and supply.

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  1. “Implement of husbandry” means every vehicle designed and adapted exclusively for agricultural, horticultural, or livestock raising operations or for lifting or carrying an implement of husbandry and in either case not subject to registration if used upon the highway.
  2. “Intersection” means the area embraced within the prolongation or connection of the lateral curb lines, or, if none, then the lateral boundary lines of the roadways of two highways which join one another at, or approximately at, right angles, or the area within which vehicles traveling upon different highways joining at any other angle may come in conflict. Where a highway includes two roadways thirty feet [9.14 meters] or more apart, then every crossing of each roadway of such divided highway by an intersecting highway must be regarded as a separate intersection. In the event such intersecting highway also includes two roadways thirty feet [9.14 meters] or more apart, then every crossing of two roadways of such highways must be regarded as a separate intersection.
  3. “Intoxicating liquor” means and includes any beverage containing alcohol.
  4. “Judgment” means any judgment which has become final by expiration without appeal of the time within which an appeal might have been perfected, or by final affirmation on appeal, rendered by a court of competent jurisdiction of any state of the United States, upon a claim for relief arising out of ownership, maintenance, or use of any motor vehicle, for damages, including damages for care and loss of services, because of bodily injury to or death of any person, or for damages because of injury to or destruction of property, including the loss of use thereof, or upon a claim for relief onan agreement of settlement for such damages.
  5. “Legal owner” means a person who holds the legal title to a vehicle.
  6. “Licensed health care provider” means doctor of medicine, doctor of osteopathy,doctor of chiropractic, optometrist, psychologist, advanced practice registered nurse, or physician assistant who is licensed, certified, or registered in accordance with laws and regulations in this or another state.
  7. “Lienholder” means a person holding a security interest in a vehicle.
  8. “Local authorities” includes every county, municipal, and other local board or body having authority to adopt local police regulations under the constitution and laws of thisstate.
  9. “Mail” means to deposit mail properly addressed and with postage prepaid with theUnited States postal service.
  10. “Manifest injustice” means a specific finding by the court that the imposition ofsentence is unreasonably harsh or shocking to the conscience of a reasonable person,with due consideration of the totality of circumstances.
  11. “Manufacturer” means any person who manufactures, assembles, or imports and sellsnew motor vehicles to new motor vehicle dealers for resale in the state; but such term does not include a person who assembles or specially builds interior equipment on a completed vehicle supplied by another manufacturer, distributor, or supplier.
  12. “Metal tires” includes all tires the surface of which in contact with the highway is wholly or partly of metal or other hard, nonresilient material except that this provision does not apply to pneumatic tires.
  13. “Modular unit” includes every factory fabricated transportable building unit designed to be incorporated with similar units at a building site into a modular structure to be used for residential, commercial, educational, or industrial purposes.
  14. “Motor vehicle” includes every vehicle that is self-propelled, every vehicle that is propelled by electric power obtained from overhead trolley wires, but not operated upon rails, and, for purposes of motor vehicle registration, title registration, and operator’s licenses, motorized bicycles. The term does not include a snowmobile as defined in section 39-24-01.
  15. “Motorcycle” means every motor vehicle having a seat or saddle for the use of the rider and designed to travel on not more than three wheels in contact with the ground, but excluding implements of husbandry.

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  1. “Motorized bicycle” means a vehicle equipped with two or three wheels, foot pedals to permit muscular propulsion or footrests for use by the operator, a power source providing up to a maximum of two brake horsepower having a maximum piston or rotor displacement of 3.05 cubic inches [49.98 milliliters] if a combustion engine is used, which will propel the vehicle, unassisted, at a speed not to exceed thirty miles [48.28 kilometers] per hour on a level road surface, and a power drive system that functions directly or automatically only, not requiring clutching or shifting by the operator after the drive system is engaged, and the vehicle may not have a width greater than thirty-two inches [81.28 centimeters].
  2. “Motor-powered recreational vehicle” means a motorcycle, off-highway vehicle as defined in section 39-29-01, or a snowmobile as defined in section 39-24-01.
  3. “Nonresident” means any person who is not a resident of this state.
  4. “Nonresident’s operating privilege” means the privilege conferred upon a nonresident by the laws of this state pertaining to the operation by such person of a motor vehicle,or the use of a vehicle owned by such person, in this state.
  5. “Official traffic-control devices” means all signs, signals, markings, and devices notinconsistent with this title placed or erected by authority of a public body or officialhaving jurisdiction, for the purpose of regulating, warning, or guiding traffic.
  6. “Operator” means every person who drives or is in actual physical control of a motor vehicle upon a highway or who is exercising control over or steering a vehicle beingtowed by a motor vehicle.
  7. “Operator’s license”, “driver’s license”, or “license to operate a motor vehicle” meansany operator’s or driver’s license or any other license or permit to operate a motor vehicle issued under, or granted by, the laws of this state, including:
    1. Any temporary license or instruction permit;
    2. The privilege of any person to drive a motor vehicle whether such person holds avalid license; or
    3. Any nonresident’s operating privilege as defined in this section.
  8. “Owner” means a person, other than a lienholder, having the property in or title to a vehicle. The term includes a person entitled to the use and possession of a vehicle subject to a security interest in another person, but excludes a lessee under a lease not intended as security.
  9. “Park”, when prohibited, means the standing of a vehicle, whether occupied or not, otherwise than temporarily for the purpose of and while actually engaged in loading or unloading.
  10. “Passenger motor vehicle” means every motor vehicle designed principally for the transportation of persons and includes vehicles which utilize a truck chassis, but have a seating capacity for four or more passengers.
  11. “Pedestrian” means any person afoot.
  12. “Person” includes every natural person, firm, copartnership, association, corporation,or limited liability company.
  13. “Pneumatic tires” includes all tires inflated with compressed air.
  14. “Pole trailer” means every vehicle without motive power designed to be drawn byanother vehicle and attached to the towing vehicle by means of a reach, or pole, or by being boomed or otherwise secured to the towing vehicle, and ordinarily used for transporting long or irregularly shaped loads such as poles, pipes, or structural members capable, generally, of sustaining themselves as beams between the supporting connections.
  15. “Police officer” means every officer authorized to direct or regulate traffic or to make arrests for violations of traffic regulations.
  16. “Private road or driveway” means every way or place in private ownership and used for vehicular travel by the owner and those having express or implied permission from the owner, but not by other persons.
  17. “Proof of financial responsibility” means proof of ability to respond in damages for liability, on account of accidents occurring subsequent to the effective date of said proof, arising out of the ownership, maintenance, or use of a motor vehicle, in the

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amount of twenty-five thousand dollars because of bodily injury to or death of one person in any one accident, and, subject to said limit for one person, in the amount of fifty thousand dollars because of bodily injury to or death of two or more persons in any one accident, and in the amount of ten thousand dollars because of injury to or destruction of property of others in any one accident.

  1. “Railroad” means a carrier of persons or property upon cars, other than streetcars, operated upon stationary rails.
  2. “Railroad sign or signal” means any sign, signal, or device erected by authority of a public body or official or by a railroad and intended to give notice of the presence of railroad tracks or the approach of a railroad train.
  3. “Reconstructed vehicle” means any vehicle, of a type required to be registered, materially altered from its original construction by the removal, addition, or substitution of new or used essential parts.
  4. “Recreational vehicle” means any motorcycle not qualified for registration, off-highway vehicle, snowmobile, vessel, or personal watercraft.
  5. “Residence district” means territory contiguous to a highway not comprising a business district, when the frontage on such highway for a distance of three hundred feet [91.44 meters] or more is occupied mainly by dwellings, or by dwellings and buildings in use for business.
  6. “Right of way” means the privilege of the immediate use of a roadway.
  7. “Road tractor” means every motor vehicle designed and used for drawing other vehicles and not so constructed as to carry any load thereon either independently orany part of the weight of a vehicle or load so drawn.
  8. “Roadway” means that portion of a highway improved, designed, or ordinarily used forvehicular travel, exclusive of the berm or shoulder. In the event a highway includes two or more separate roadways, the term “roadway” as used herein refers to any such roadway separately but not to all such roadways collectively.
  9. “Saddle mount” means placing the front wheels of the drawn vehicle upon the bed of the drawing vehicle.
  10. “Safety zone” means the area or space officially set aside within a highway for the exclusive use of pedestrians and which is so plainly marked or indicated by proper signs as to be plainly visible at all times while set aside as a safety zone.
  11. “Salvage certificate of title” means a document issued by the department for purposes of proof of ownership of a salvage or destroyed vehicle and not acceptable for motor vehicle registration purposes.
  12. “Schoolbus” means a commercial motor vehicle used to transport preprimary, primary, or secondary school students from home to school, from school to home, or to and from school-related events. For the purposes of chapter 39-21, “schoolbus” means any motor vehicle that is owned or leased by a public or governmental agency and used to transport primary or secondary school students to or from school or to or from school-related events, or is privately owned and operated for compensation to transport primary or secondary school students to or from school or to or from school-related events. Schoolbus does not include a bus used as a common carrier.
  13. “Semitrailer” includes every vehicle of the trailer type so designed and used in conjunction with a truck or truck tractor that some part of its own weight and that of its own load rests upon or is carried by a truck or truck tractor, except that it does not include a “housetrailer” or “mobile home”.
  14. “Sidewalk” means that portion of a street between the curb lines, or the lateral lines of a roadway, and the adjacent property lines, intended for use of pedestrians.
  15. “Solid tire” includes every tire made of rubber or other resilient material other than a pneumatic tire.
  16. “Special mobile equipment” means every vehicle not designed or used primarily for the transportation of persons or property and only incidentally operated or moved over a highway.

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  1. “Specially constructed vehicle” means any vehicle which was not constructed originally under the distinct name, make, model, or type by a generally recognized manufacturer of vehicles.
  2. “Stand” or “standing” means the halting of a vehicle, whether occupied or not, otherwise than temporarily for the purpose of and while actually engaged in receiving or discharging passengers.
  3. “State” means a state, territory, or possession of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, or a province of the Dominion of Canada.
  4. “Stop”, when required, means complete cessation from movement.
  5. “Stop” or “stopping”, when prohibited, means any halting, even momentarily, of a vehicle, whether occupied or not, except when necessary to avoid conflict with other traffic or in compliance with the directions of a police officer or traffic-control sign orsignal.
  6. “Street” means the entire width between boundary lines of every way publiclymaintained when any part thereof is open to the use of the public for purposes ofvehicular travel.
  7. “Superintendent” means the superintendent of the North Dakota state highway patrol,acting directly or through authorized employees of the superintendent.
  8. “Through highway” means every highway or portion thereof on which vehicular traffic is given preferential right of way, and at the entrances to which vehicular traffic from intersecting highways is required by law to yield right of way to vehicles on such through highway and in obedience to either a stop sign or yield sign, when such signsare erected by law.
  9. “Trackless trolley coach” means every motor vehicle which is propelled by electricpower obtained from overhead trolley wires but not operated upon rails.
  10. “Traffic” means pedestrians, ridden or herded animals, vehicles, streetcars, and otherconveyances either singly or together while using any highway for purposes of travel.
  11. “Traffic-control signal” means any device, whether manually, electrically, ormechanically operated, by which traffic is alternately directed to stop and to proceed.
  12. “Trailer” includes every vehicle without motive power designed to carry property or passengers wholly on its own structure and to be drawn by a motor vehicle, except that it does not include a “housetrailer” or “mobile home”, which terms mean a vehicle as defined in this subsection which is designed and intended for use as living or sleeping quarters for people and which is not used for commercial hauling ofpassengers.
  13. “Travel trailer” means a vehicular unit mounted on wheels, designed to providetemporary living quarters for recreational, camping, or travel use, and of such size or weight as not to require a special highway movement permit when towed by a motorized vehicle.
  14. “Truck” includes every motor vehicle designed, used, or maintained primarily for transportation of property.
  15. “Truck camper” means a portable unit that is constructed to provide temporary living quarters for recreational, camping, or travel use; consists of a roof, floor, and sides; and is designed to be loaded onto and unloaded from the bed of a pickup truck.
  16. “Truck tractor” includes every motor vehicle designed and used primarily for drawing other vehicles and not so constructed as to carry a load other than a part of the weight of the vehicle and load so drawn.
  17. “Urban district” means the territory contiguous to and including any street which is built up with structures devoted to business, industry, or dwelling houses situated at intervals of less than one hundred feet [30.48 meters] for a distance of a quarter of a mile [402.34 meters] or more.
  18. “Used vehicle” means a motor vehicle which has been sold, bargained, exchanged, given away, or the title to which has been transferred to another, by the person who first acquired it from the manufacturer or importer, dealer, or agent of the manufacturer or importer.

     95. “Vehicle” includes every device in, upon, or by which any person or property may be transported or drawn upon a public highway, except devices            moved by human power or used exclusively upon stationary rails or tracks.

39-01-01.1. Declaration of legislative intent.

The legislative assembly in adopting title 39 recognized that the development of a modern and integrated highway system which is so essential to safe and efficient highway transportation represents a large investment of public funds. To ensure maximum public benefits from such investment, authority has been vested in appropriate agencies of government for the establishment, construction, maintenance, and operation of needed road facilities, within the limits of funds made available.

Additionally, the legislative assembly recognizes that other functions of government, established pursuant to title 39 to govern the ownership and use of motor vehicles, also are supported by public funds and render important public services which contribute to the safe and efficient use of roads and streets. The responsibilities of state government include such functions as vehicle registration and titling, driver licensing, financial responsibility, police traffic supervision, accident investigation and reporting, and use of accident records, traffic operations, and similar functions conducted under motor vehicle laws affecting motor vehicles and their use.

In fulfilling these responsibilities, the legislative assembly recognizes the necessity that individual prerogatives be considered secondary to the general welfare and so it is expected that the officials will adopt such reasonable policies, procedures, rules, and regulations as may be necessary, within the authority granted by law, and in so doing shall make appropriate use of recommended standards developed by recognized official groups to ensure a desirable level of uniformity throughout the state and with other states. Such uniformity is especially important in the use and application of uniform signs, signals, and markings.

It is expected, further, that the officials will cooperate with each other where such cooperation is essential, and not otherwise prescribed by law. Moreover, there is also need for more effective coordination of activities among all branches and levels of government in carrying out their respective traffic safety responsibilities, including the governor’s office, the state legislative assembly and city councils, the administrative, enforcement, and judicial officials of the state and its political subdivisions. In all matters of mutual concern, and where appropriate, cooperation is also encouraged among state officials, officials of other states and the federal government, and other responsible groups, both public and private.

Highway transportation is a dynamic force in our society and is influenced by new developments and changing public needs. To keep abreast of foreseeable adjustments, it is expected that the officials will engage in such research and planning as may be necessary and as may be provided for in this title. Such efforts should be conducted in cooperation with all interested public and private groups, and directed towards the development of realistic traffic accident prevention programs to guide legislative decisions and enlist public support in meeting immediate and potential needs.

In keeping with the policies herein enunciated, it is the intent of the legislative assembly to equip each function with the necessary authority to maintain an adequate level of performance in all functions concerned with the ownership and use of motor vehicles, as they are established in title 39, consistent with the expanding needs of highway transportation, in order to protect the public safety, promote the general welfare, and advance the economy of the state.

39-01-02. Motor vehicles owned or leased by the state to display name on side of vehicles – Exceptions – Penalty.

All motor vehicles owned and operated by the state, except vehicles under the control of the central vehicle management system and the official vehicle for use by the governor, must have displayed on each front door the words NORTH DAKOTA. The words must be in letters four inches [10.16 centimeters] in height. Two and one-half inches [6.35 centimeters] directly below those words there must be printed in letters one and one-half inches [3.81 centimeters] in height the name of the state agency owning or leasing the motor vehicle. The width of the display required by this section must be proportionate to the required height. The color of the lettering must be in clear and sharp contrast to the background. The state auditor shall include in the auditor’s report to the governor and the legislative assembly any instance of noncompliance with this section. The above requirements do not apply to vehicles operated by the attorney general’s office, the highway patrol, or vehicles used principally in juvenile, parole, and placement services. The central vehicle management system vehicles must display a window decal designed by the director. The state highway patrol and all peace officers of this state shall enforce this section.

39-01-03. Motor vehicle owned by the state or an international peace garden not to be used for private use or in political activities.

No person, officer, or employee of the state or of any department, board, bureau, commission, institution, industry, or other agency of the state, or of any entity located upon the international boundary line between the United States of America and Canada used and maintained as a memorial to commemorate the long-existing relationship of peace and good will between the people and the governments of the United States of America and Canada and to further international peace among the nations of the world, may use or drive any motor vehicle belonging to the state or to any department, board, bureau, commission, institution, industry, or other agency of the state, or of any entity located upon the international boundary line between the United States of America and Canada used and maintained as a memorial to commemorate the long-existing relationship of peace and good will between the people and the governments of the United States of America and Canada and to further international peace among the nations of the world, for private use, or while engaged in any political activity.

39-01-04. Political activity defined.

The term “political activity” as used in this chapter includes any form of campaigning or electioneering, such as attending or arranging for political meetings; transporting candidates or workers engaged in campaigning or electioneering; distributing campaign literature, political guide cards, or placards; soliciting or canvassing for campaign funds; transporting electors to the polls on election day; and any other form of political work usually and ordinarily engaged in by state officers and employees during primary and general election campaigns.

39-01-05. Expenses not to be collected by state officers or employees engaged in political activity.

A state officer or employee who uses or drives any privately owned motor vehicle while engaged in political activity may not collect or receive from this state any expense moneys for the use or operation of the motor vehicle while engaged in the political activity. A state officer or employee may not collect or receive any traveling expense reimbursement from this state for any time spent engaging in any political activity.

39-01-06. Collecting or receiving expense money wrongfully – Civil action for recovery – Liability of bond.

Any officer or employee who collects or receives any expense moneys in violation of section 39-01-05 is subject to a suit for the recovery of the funds wrongfully collected or received by that person, and if that person’s office or position is bonded by the state bonding fund, such fund also is liable therefor.

39-01-07. Penalty for violation of chapter.

Any person violating any provision of this chapter for which another penalty is not specifically provided is guilty of a class A misdemeanor.

39-01-08. State, political subdivisions, and international peace gardens authorized to carry insurance on vehicles – Waiver of immunity to extent only of insurance purchased.

1. The state or any department, agency, or bureau, as well as any county, city, or other political subdivision including townships, school districts, and park districts, and any entity located upon the international boundary line between the United States of America and Canada used and maintained as a memorial to commemorate the long-existing relationship of peace and good will between the people and the governments of the United States of America and Canada and to further international peace among the nations of the world, using or operating motor vehicles and aircrafts, may carry insurance for their own protection and for the protection of any employees from claims for loss or damage arising out of or by reason of the use or operation of the motor vehicle or aircraft, whether the vehicle or aircraft at the time the loss or damage in question occurred was being operated in a governmental undertaking or otherwise. If a premium savings will result therefrom, the insurance policy may be taken out for more than one year, but in no event beyond a period of five years.

  1. If insurance is purchased pursuant to subsection 1, then the purchaser waives its immunity to suit only to the extent of allowing a determination of liability to the extent of the waiver of the immunity against liability described in subsection 3.
  2. If insurance is purchased pursuant to subsection 1, then the purchaser waives its immunity against liability only to the types of its insurance coverage and only to the extent of the policy limits of the coverage. Provided, the purchaser or its insurance carrier is not liable for claims arising out of the conduct of a ridesharing arrangement, as defined in section 8-02-07.
  3. If any dispute exists concerning the amount or nature of the insurance coverage, the dispute must be tried separately before the main trial determining the claims and damages of the claimant.
  4. This statute confers no right for a claimant to sue the insurer directly.
  5. When liability insurance is carried pursuant to this section or pursuant to section 32-12.1-05, no defense in a negligence action may be raised by the insurance carrier upon the basis of section 39-07-05.

39-01-08.1. Senior citizens group motor vehicle – Availability of coverage under political subdivision policies.

Any political subdivision may provide for the inclusion of buses, vans, or other motor vehicles used by senior citizens groups to transport members in a motor vehicle insurance policy of the political subdivision. The political subdivision may require payment by a senior citizens group for any increase in the premium rate charged to the political subdivision which is attributable to the coverage provided to that senior citizens group. The political subdivision may provide for a payment procedure to require the payment of any premium or premium portion attributable to the coverage provided for the senior citizens group.

39-01-08.2. Senior citizens group motor vehicle – Availability of coverage under state policies.

Except as otherwise provided in this section, any insurance policy providing coverage of state-owned motor vehicles must provide, at the request of a senior citizens group prior to the issuance or renewal of the policy, for the inclusion of buses, vans, or other motor vehicles used by the senior citizens group to transport members. The state agency negotiating the insurance policy may require payment by a senior citizens group for any increase in the premium rate charged to the state agency which is attributable to the coverage provided to that senior citizens group. The state agency shall provide by rule for the payment by the senior citizens group of the premium portion attributable to the group’s coverage under the policy. The state agency may refuse to provide coverage to a senior citizens group if the coverage would hinder the ability of or not allow the state to obtain insurance.

39-01-09. Parking meters prohibited.

It is unlawful for the state of North Dakota, its political subdivisions, counties, cities, and the state department of transportation to establish and maintain any mechanical device or devices known as “parking meters”, or by whatever name designated, requiring the deposit therein of coins or tokens for the privilege of parking cars or other vehicles upon the streets and highways in the state of North Dakota. Any and all ordinances and resolutions now existing authorizing the establishment and maintenance of such mechanical devices or parking meters, or by whatever name designated, are hereby declared null and void.

39-01-10. Proof of payment of registration fees and taxes.

The director of the department of transportation may require all owners or operators of motor vehicles using the highways of this state or registered in this state to show proof of the payment of all proper taxes and registration fees upon such motor vehicles.

39-01-11. Nonresident motor vehicle user – Service upon.

The use and operation by a resident of this state or that person’s agent, or by a nonresident or that person’s agent, of a motor vehicle upon or over the highways of this state must be deemed an appointment by such resident when that person has been absent from this state continuously for six months or more following an accident or by such nonresident at any time, of the director of the department of transportation of this state to be the person’s true and lawful attorney upon whom may be served all legal process in any action or proceeding against the person growing out of the use or operation of the motor vehicle resulting in damages or loss to person or property, whether the damage or loss occurs upon a public highway or upon public or private property, and such use or operation constitutes an agreement that any such process in any action against the person which is so served has the same legal force and effect as if served upon the person personally, or, in case of the person’s death, that such process has the same legal force and effect as if served upon the administrator of the person’s estate. Service of the summons in such case may be made by delivering a copy thereof to the director with a fee of ten dollars.

39-01-12. Mailing notice to defendant upon service of nonresident motor vehicle user.

Within ten days after service of summons as provided in section 39-01-11, notice of such service together with a copy of the summons and complaint in the action must be sent by the plaintiff to the defendant at the defendant’s last-known address by registered or certified mail with return receipt requested, and proof of such mailing must be attached to the summons.

39-01-13. Director to keep record of process received for nonresident motor vehicle users.

The director shall keep a record of all process served upon the director under the provisions of section 39-01-11. Such record must show the day and hour of service. If any defendant served under section 39-01-11 has made proof of financial responsibility by filing a certificate of insurance coverage, as provided in section 39-16.1-09, the director shall mail a copy of such summons and complaint to the insurance carrier named in such certificate.

39-01-14. Protecting rights of defendant served as nonresident motor vehicle user.

When service has been made as provided in section 39-01-11, the court, before entering default judgment, or at any stage of the proceeding, may order such continuance as may be necessary to afford the defendant reasonable opportunity to defend any action against the defendant.

39-01-15. Parking privileges for mobility impaired – Certificate – Revocation – Continuing appropriation – Penalty.

1. Any mobility-impaired person who displays prominently upon an automobile parked by that person or under that person’s direction and for that person’s use, the distinguishing certificate specified in subsection 4 or license plates issued under section 39-04-10.2 is entitled to courtesy in the parking of the automobile. Provided, however, that any municipality may, by ordinance, prohibit parking on any street or highway for the purpose of creating a fire lane, or to provide for the accommodation of heavy traffic during morning and afternoon rush hours, and the privileges extended to such impaired persons do not apply on streets or highways where and during such times as parking is prohibited.

  1. A mobility-impaired person as used in this section includes any person who uses portable oxygen; requires personal assistance or the use of crutches, a wheelchair, or a walker to walk two hundred feet [60.96 meters] without rest; is restricted by cardiac, pulmonary, or vascular disease from walking two hundred feet [60.96 meters] without rest; has a forced expiratory volume of less than one liter for one second or an arterial oxygen tension of less than sixty millimeters of mercury on room air while at rest and is classified III or IV by standards for cardiac disease set by the American heart association; or has an orthopedic, neurologic, or other medical condition that makes it impossible for the person to walk two hundred feet [60.96 meters] without assistance or rest.
  2. Repealed by S.L. 1989, ch. 319, § 6.
  3. The director may issue, for a fee of three dollars per year or part of a year, a specialidentifying certificate to any mobility-impaired applicant upon submission by the applicant of a completed application and a written statement issued by a qualified physician or an advanced practice registered nurse to the director that the applicant is a mobility-impaired person within the criteria of subsection 2. The director shall waive the requirement for a written statement from a qualified physician or an advanced practice registered nurse if the applicant has previously submitted an application containing a certification from a qualified physician or an advanced practice registered nurse that the applicant’s impairment is not reversible. The application must include the information required by the director. The physician’s or advanced practice registered nurse’s statement must describe how the impairment limits the applicant’s mobility and daily life functions of the applicant. The certificate is valid for a period, not to exceed three years, as determined by the director. A physician or an advanced practice registered nurse who provides a false statement that a person is mobility impaired for the purpose of that person obtaining a certificate under this subsection is guilty of an infraction for which a minimum fine of one hundred dollars must be imposed. A certificate issued under this subsection must be nine and one-half inches [24.13 centimeters] in height and three inches [7.62 centimeters] in width and must bear, in white on blue, the internationally accepted symbol of access for the mobility impaired. The certificate must bear the expiration date and registration number assigned by the director. The director shall adopt rules governing the issuance of the certificate. A temporary certificate, valid for an initial period not to exceed three months, may be issued by the director for a fee of three dollars upon application supported by a physician’s or an advanced practice registered nurse’s statement. The director may issue a maximum of one additional temporary certificate for a fee of three dollars. The temporary certificate may be extended an additional period, not to exceed three months, upon application supported by a physician’s or an advanced practice registered nurse’s statement that the extension is warranted. Temporary certificates must be the same size as other certificates issued under this section and must be white on red. The director may issue a maximum of one additional certificate, if the applicant does not have license plates issued under section 39-04-10.2, for a fee of six dollars per certificate, to a mobility-impaired person to whom a certificate has been issued under this subsection. The additional certificates may only be used by or on behalf of the mobility-impaired person.
  4. Except as provided in this subsection, two dollars of each fee for issuance of a certificate and one dollar of each fee for issuance of an additional certificate under this section must be deposited in the state highway department fund for purposes of defraying the cost of issuing the certificate. The rest of the fee, and the five dollar fee received for the issuance of an additional certificate under subsection 4, must be deposited in the state treasury and credited to the employment of people with disabilities fund. The fees deposited in the fund are hereby appropriated on a continuing basis to the committee on employment of people with disabilities of the department of human services for development of job opportunities for disabled individuals in this state. If a certificate is lost, mutilated, or destroyed, the person to whom the certificate was issued is entitled to a replacement. The person shall furnish proof satisfactory to the director that the certificate has been lost, mutilated, or destroyed, and shall pay a replacement fee of three dollars.
  1. A certificate issued under this section must be hung from the rearview mirror of themotor vehicle whenever the vehicle is occupying a space reserved for the mobility impaired and is being used by a mobility-impaired person or another person for the purposes of transporting the mobility-impaired person. No part of the certificate may be obscured. A fee of five dollars may be imposed for a violation of this subsection.
  2. An applicant may appeal a decision denying issuance of the certificate to the director. Written notice of the appeal must be received within ten business days following receipt by the applicant of notice of denial. The applicant has sixty days to provide additional supportive material to the director for purposes of deciding the appeal. The director shall affirm or reverse the decision to deny issuance of the certificate within thirty days after receipt of the supportive material. Written notice of the decision must be given to the applicant.
  3. If a law enforcement officer finds that the certificate is being improperly used, the officer may report to the director any such violation and the director may, in the director’s discretion, remove the privilege. Any person who is not mobility impaired and who exercises the privileges granted a mobility-impaired person under subsection 1 is guilty of an infraction for which a fine of one hundred dollars must be imposed.
  4. Whenever any public or private entity designates parking spaces for use by motor vehicles operated by mobility-impaired persons, those reserved spaces must comply with the requirements of the Americans with Disabilities Accessibility Guidelines for Buildings and Facilities as contained in the appendix to title 28, Code of Federal Regulations, part 36 [28 CFR 36] and must be indicated by blue paint on the curb or edge of the paved portion of the street or parking lot adjacent to the space. In addition to blue paint, each reserved space must be indicated by an official sign approved by the director bearing the internationally accepted symbol of access for the mobility impaired. The sign must indicate that unauthorized use of the space is a nonmoving violation for which a fee of one hundred dollars must be imposed. For particular events, a public or a private entity may reserve additional parking spaces for use by motor vehicles operated by mobility-impaired persons. In that case, each temporarily reserved space must be indicated by a sign or other suitable means. A sign indicating that a space is reserved for the mobility impaired and blue paint on the curb or edge of the paved portion of the street or parking lot adjacent to the space, unless the space is a temporary mobility-impaired parking space, is sufficient basis for the enforcement of this section. A law enforcement officer shall enforce this section in any parking lot or parking facility, whether publicly or privately owned.
  5. A person may not stop, stand, or park any vehicle in any designated parking space that is reserved for the mobility impaired unless the vehicle displays a mobility-impaired identification certificate issued by the director to a mobility-impaired person. A mobility-impaired person may not permit the use of a certificate issued under this section by a person who is not mobility impaired when that use is not in connection with the transport of the mobility-impaired person. The registered owner of a vehicle may not allow that vehicle to be used in a manner that violates this subsection. Proof of intent is not required to prove a registered owner’s violation of this subsection. The registered owner, however, may be excused from a violation if the owner provides the citing authority with the name and address of the person operating the vehicle at the time of the violation. A vehicle may temporarily use a space reserved for mobility-impaired persons without a mobility-impaired certificate for the purpose of loading and unloading mobility-impaired persons. A violation of this subsection is a nonmoving violation for which a fee of one hundred dollars must be imposed. Notwithstanding section 29-27-02.1, fifty percent of the fee imposed and collected under this subsection is appropriated on a continuing basis to the local committee on persons with disabilities, if one exists in the city in which the violation occurred, for the development of job opportunities for disabled individuals in the community.
  1. Any motor vehicle licensed in another state which displays a special authorized vehicle designation issued by the licensing authority of that state for vehicles used in the transportation of mobility-impaired persons must be accorded the same privilege provided in this section for similar vehicles licensed in this state if the laws of the other state provide the same privileges to North Dakota motor vehicles displaying the special identifying certificate authorized in this section.
  2. An entity that violates the requirements of subsection 9 is guilty of an infraction if the entity does not comply with subsection 9 within sixty days after receiving official notification of the violation.
  3. The department shall issue a mobility-impaired parking permit for a vehicle owned and operated by care providers licensed by the state, veterans-related organizations, and other entities that regularly transport mobility-impaired individuals for use by those providers and entities to park in designated parking spaces while transporting mobility-impaired individuals.

39-01-16. Hearing on alleged violations.

Any person having information that a licensed dealer has violated any provisions of this title may file with the director an affidavit specifically setting forth such violation. Upon receipt of such affidavit, the director shall investigate the violation alleged in the affidavit. If, after investigation, the director determines that the dealer’s license will be revoked or suspended, a notice of intent to revoke or suspend the license must be mailed to the dealer by certified mail. The notice must provide the dealer with an opportunity for a hearing prior to the effective date of the license revocation or suspension. A record of such hearings must be made by stenographic notes or use of an electronic recording device.

If after such hearing the director finds the violation charged in the affidavit has been proved by the evidence, an order must be served on the licensee revoking or suspending the dealer’s license for a period of time to be determined by the director. Such action may be appealed to the district court by following the appeal procedure set forth in chapter 28-32, except that the order revoking or suspending the license is ineffective while the appeal is pending.

The director has the power to appoint an administrative hearing officer to conduct the hearing, administer oaths, and subpoena and examine witnesses. The administrative hearing officer shall submit the findings to the director for consideration and final decision.

Any witness called by the prosecution, except a peace officer while on duty, shall receive the same fees and mileage as a witness in a civil case in district court.

39-01-17. Authority to administer oaths and certify copies of records – Admissibility of records.

  1. Officers and employees of the department designated by the director are, for the purpose of administering the motor vehicle laws, authorized to administer oaths and acknowledge signatures, and must do so without fee.
  2. A certified copy of any record, electronic or original, maintained by the director relative to title 39 is admissible in any judicial proceedings or administrative hearing in the same manner as the original of the record.
  3. In response to a subpoena, or upon the request of any appropriate government or judicial official, the director shall provide a duly certified copy of any book, paper, entry, record, or other document of that agency. This certified copy may consist of a photocopy or computer printout of the requested document certified by the director or a duly authorized representative.

39-01-18. Dealer bond cancellation – Reinstatement – Revocation of license.

Any dealer required to be bonded by the provisions of title 39 whose bond is canceled by the surety company shall file a new bond with the department before the effective date of the cancellation. The effective date of a bond cancellation must be thirty days after notification by certified mail to the department from the surety company. Any dealer failing to maintain a current surety bond with the department shall return the dealer’s license and dealer’s plates to the department on or before the effective date of the cancellation. Failure to return the dealer’s license or dealer’s plates results in automatic revocation by operation of law. The department may order the superintendent to take possession of any dealer’s license or dealer’s plates not returned to the department as required in this section. The department shall reinstate the dealer’s license and dealer’s plates if a new bond is received within thirty days of the revocation.

39-01-19. Permits for vending machines at rest areas.

A vending machine that allows access to a tobacco product may not be placed or remain upon a rest area, and any other vending machine may not be placed or remain upon a rest area under the supervision of the director without a permit from the director. The director shall charge a fee for the issuance of a vending machine permit. The amount of the permit fee must relate to the department’s actual cost of administration, annual review, and enforcement of the permit process, but may not exceed twenty-five dollars annually. The permit process may not be affected by the content of a publication. The director shall require permittees to comply with appropriate indemnification, insurance, and other risk management provisions of the permit. Vending machines must be secured in a manner that prevents tipping and moving, deters theft, and leaves state property undamaged. Plexiglass, safety glass, or other shatter-resistant materials must be employed in windows or displays. All vending machines must be sufficiently enclosed to prevent the distributed product from inadvertently being removed or blown from the machine or weathered by the elements. Stolen or damaged vending machines do not result in liability to the department and must be repaired, restored, or replaced within thirty calendar days. All cashboxes and accesses to cashboxes must be metal and securely locked in place. All vending machines must be placed in a well-lighted area visible from the rest area roadway. All vending machines must be placed on a route allowing parallel access by motorized or standard wheelchairs, with at least sixty-six inches [1676.400 millimeters] of clear width. A vending machine may not have a component or function used by the public which requires more than five pounds [2.268 kilograms] of force to be applied. The height of controls, doors, or access points necessary for use by the public may not exceed sixty inches [1524 millimeters]. The director may determine the maximum number of vending machine placements at a given rest area. Priority must be given to vending machines placed pursuant to the Randolph Sheppard Act [Pub. L. 74-732; 49 Stat. 1559; 20 U.S.C. 107], as administered by the vocational rehabilitation division of the department of human services under section 50-06.1-13. When, after allowing for the placement of vending machines pursuant to the Randolph Sheppard Act [Pub. L. 74-732; 49 Stat. 1559; 20 U.S.C. 107], the director determines that the number of permit applications for a particular rest area would exceed the remaining available space or would prevent compliance with this section or other law, the director shall grant permits by means of a lottery, with permits allocated pro rata according to the number of applications for each type. The permittee is solely responsible to ensure that any trash, wrapping, boxes, or debris, generated when stocking or servicing vending machines is not left on or at the rest area. The permittee is solely responsible for all installation, maintenance, replacement, inspection, access area cleaning, and stocking of vending machines. Vandalism and graffiti on vending machines must be repaired or removed within fourteen days of written notice by the director. The permittee must inspect and stock vending machines as needed, but at least monthly, to provide adequate service to the public. Vending machines removed for repair or for other reasons must be restored or replaced by the permittee within thirty days. Vending machines in violation of this section or any other applicable law may be removed by the director fourteen days after notice of violation is provided and without liability to the director. Vending machines judged by the director to pose a risk to safety may be removed immediately without liability to the director and without prior notice to the permittee. The director shall retain any removed vending machines for thirty days to allow retrieval by the permittee, after compensation to the director for removal costs. The director may dispose of or sell machines not retrieved within thirty days of removal, but removal costs must be satisfied only to the extent of proceeds received by the director. The director has a cause of action to recover any deficiency, attorney’s fees, and litigation expenses. The director, upon the determination that a rest area must be closed for a period of greater than thirty days, may order the permittee, at the permittee’s expense, to remove all vending machines in a manner that does not damage state property, or remove all product and money and place upon the vending machine a prominent notice that all product and money have been removed. Should the director determine that removal of vending machines is necessary to conduct repairs, construction, surveys, or other duties of the department, the permittee, at the permittee’s expense, shall remove all vending machines in a manner that does not damage state property, upon fourteen days’ notice. The current address and telephone number where customer service or business is conducted by the permittee must be legibly and prominently posted upon the vending machine. The director shall cancel the permit should the permittee remove vending machines, except as provided in this section. The cost of any removal must be borne by the permittee. The permittee, at the permittee’s own expense, must restore the site the machine formerly occupied to the satisfaction of the director. For purposes of this section, “vending machine” means any device that allows access to a newspaper, magazine, beverage, concession, or other item for public consumption or use. For purposes of this section, “permittee” means any person or organization, including any corporation, partnership, firm, or any other legal entity capable of owning property and transacting business, which has applied for a permit under this chapter. For purposes of this section, “notice” consists of a written communication and must be deemed to have occurred within seventy-two hours of mailing, if mailed within North Dakota, or one hundred twenty hours of mailing, if mailed outside North Dakota. “Notice” to a vendor of the condition of a vending machine also occurs if a period of time greater than the required inspection interval for the vending machines has passed.

To view the North Dakota traffic ordinances in their entirety please visit http://www.legis.nd.gov/cencode/t39.html